Maturity of endoscopic techniques to remove common bile duct stones
The development of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in 1974 ushered in a new era for convenient and minimally invasive removal of common bile duct stones.As the years progressed and clinical application of this method increased, improved endoscopic technologies were developed to provide ever safer and more effective removal.This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the progressive techniques, from the endoscopic papillary sphincter balloon dilatation and endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy procedures introduced in the 1980s to the very recent attempts with direct-vision electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy procedures.
Yoo KS, Lehman GA.Endoscopic management of biliary ductalstones[J].Gastroenterol Clin N Am, 2010, 39 (2) :209-227. Williams EJ, Green J, Beckingham I, et al.Guidelines on the man-agement of common bile duct stones (CBDS) [J].Gut, 2008, 57 (7) :1004-1021. Rosenkranz L, Patel SN.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographyfor stone burden in the bile and pancreatic ducts[J].Gastrointest EndoscClin N Am, 2012, 22 (3) :435-450.
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