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《肿瘤外科学年鉴: 肝外胆管癌和胆囊癌临床诊疗指南》推荐意见

郭伟 李鑫 王明达 杨田

引用本文:
Citation:

《肿瘤外科学年鉴: 肝外胆管癌和胆囊癌临床诊疗指南》推荐意见

DOI: 10.12449/JCH240407
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 (81972726);

上海市自然科学基金项目 (22ZR1477900);

河南省医学科技攻关计划项目 (LHGJ20190512)

利益冲突声明:本文不存在任何利益冲突。
作者贡献声明:郭伟、李鑫等负责文章翻译,撰写论文;王明达、杨田等负责文章审校。
详细信息
    通信作者:

    杨田, yangtian6666@hotmail.com (ORCID: 0000-0003-1544-0976)

Recommendations from Annals of Surgical Oncology: Clinical guidelines for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma

Research funding: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China (81972726);

Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (22ZR1477900);

Henan Provincial Medical Science and Technology Research Project (LHGJ20190512)

More Information
  • 摘要: 胆道恶性肿瘤是一类发病率低但侵袭性强的消化道肿瘤,主要包括肝内胆管癌、肝外胆管癌和胆囊癌,常常伴随着局部进展或远处转移等特征。对于局部可切除的患者而言,手术往往是首选的治疗方法。然而,即便患者接受根治性手术其术后复发风险依然很高。因此,对于胆道恶性肿瘤患者而言,通常需要采取多种治疗模式,包括手术切除、全身治疗(如靶向治疗、化学治疗、免疫治疗)以及/或局部治疗的综合方案。随着胆道恶性肿瘤领域的逐渐发展,对于外科肿瘤学家而言,了解并掌握最新的外科诊疗策略以及最佳患者的选择和管理体系至关重要。鉴于治疗的复杂性和诊疗技术不断发展的特点,美国肿瘤外科学权威期刊《肿瘤外科学年鉴》于近期发表了关于肝胆肿瘤的实践诊疗指南,主要包括肝细胞癌、肝内胆管癌、肝外胆管癌和胆囊癌,旨在为肝胆肿瘤患者的临床管理和决策制定提供更多基于循证医学的证据。限于篇幅和不同侧重点,本文着重介绍该指南中关于肝外胆管癌和胆囊癌的评估要点和临床治疗的相关建议,以供临床参考。

     

  • 图  1  肝门部胆管癌Bismuth-Corlette分型

    注: Ⅰ型肿瘤位于肝管汇合处(HDC)的远端。Ⅱ型肿瘤延伸至并累及HDC。Ⅲ型肿瘤累及HDC以及右(ⅢA型)或左(ⅢB型)肝管的近端。Ⅳ型肿瘤延伸至双侧肝近端管直至节段胆管。RHD代表右肝管,LHD代表左肝管,HDC为肝管汇合处。

    Figure  1.  The Bismuth-Corlette classification of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    图  2  基于NCCN指南的临床表现指导GC的治疗

    Figure  2.  Treatment of gallbladder cancer based on presentation from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines

    表  1  ECC和GC的手术治疗和围手术期管理注意事项的对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of surgical and perioperative management considerations for ECC and GC

    注意事项 ECC GC
    手术禁忌证 绝对:肝门外淋巴结转移;FLR不足(如果需要切除肝脏);晚期肝硬化;肝外转移 相对:出现黄疸,预后差 绝对:肝门外淋巴结转移;肝外疾病
    手术计划 肿瘤的解剖学评估; 肝容量指标(如适合手术); 术前胆道引流; 肿瘤的解剖学评估
    腹腔镜检查 选择(联合肝脏超声) 选择(联合肝脏/胆道超声)
    术式选择 肝门部肿瘤:视解剖情况而定; 胆管切除+/-肝切除; 远端肿瘤:胆管切除术或Whipple手术 T1b及以上和淋巴结阳性者需要行胆囊切除术和肝4b/5段切除; 意外GC,术后病理分期在T1b以上者需要在初次术后4~8周再次行肝4b/5段切除
    淋巴结清扫 清扫(6枚淋巴结) 清扫(6枚淋巴结)
    边缘距离 没有一致意见,建议R0边缘; 肝门部胆管癌切除应包括尾状叶以提高阴性切缘率; 标本近端和远端应做冷冻病理切片 没有一致意见,建议R0切缘; 胆囊管切缘需做冷冻病理切片检查
    术前新辅助化疗 手术可切除者目前没有建议 手术可切除者目前没有建议; 对于T2或T3分期肿瘤的新辅助治疗方案目前正在试验中
    术后辅助化疗 卡培他滨 卡培他滨
    注:FLR,残余肝脏体积。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-03-02
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