【Abstract】：Objective To investigate the clinical features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients progressing to liver failure due to recurrence after withdrawal of nucleos(t)ide analogues and influencing factors for prognosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 40 patients with liver failure due to recurrence after drug withdrawal who were admitted to Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2014 to December 2017, including general information, antiviral therapy, and biochemical and virological data. According to the treatment outcome at week 12, the patients were divided into survival group with 18 patients and death group with 22 patients, and clinical features were compared between the two groups. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data with skewed distribution between groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the influencing factors for recurrence and progression to liver failure after drug withdrawal. Results There were no significant differences between the death group and the survival group in median time of antiviral therapy and time from drug withdrawal to recurrence (P＞0.05), and the death group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis than the survival group (81.8% vs 27.8%, χ2=11.831, P=0.001). Compared with the death group, the survival group had significantly higher levels of albumin (t=2.302), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Z=-3.671), and cholinesterase (Z=-2.134) and significantly lower total bilirubin (Z=-4.241), prothrombin time (t=-2.727), international normalized ratio (t=-2.343), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (t=-3.909) (all P＜0.05). There was a significant difference in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade between the two groups (χ2=18.425, P＜0.001). The logistic regression analysis showed that ACLF grade (odds ratio ［OR］=9.865, 95% confidence interval ［CI］: 1.455-67.370, P=0.020) and liver cirrhosis (OR=9.988, 95%CI: 2.048-48.709, P=0.004) were independent risk factors for the prognosis of liver failure due to recurrence after drug withdrawal. Conclusion Liver failure due to recurrence after drug withdrawal has a high mortality rate, and its prognosis is not associated with antiviral regimen, course of treatment, or virological parameters. Patients with liver cirrhosis and a higher liver failure grade tend to have poorer prognosis. Patients with liver cirrhosis have a high risk after drug withdrawal and should take the medicine for a long time or even for the whole life.
【Key words】：hepatitis B, chronic; liver failure; antiviral agents; recurrence; risk factors