【Abstract】：Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 63.9% of all HCC cases in mainland China. HBV leads to the development or recurrence of HCC in a direct or indirect way. Theoretically, anti-HBV therapy can reduce or delay the development of HCC. There has been convincing evidence that nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) can reduce the development of HCC, and recent studies showed that pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) is superior to NAs in secondary prevention; data showed that NAs are effective in reducing the cumulative recurrence rate of HCC after curative surgery, and the application of IFN can extend the overall survival of patients. Secondary/tertiary prevention of HBV-related HCC should focus on the following two points: (1) pay attention to the rational use of IFN/PEG-IFN in patients with chronic hepatitis B; (2) take HBV DNA ＜20 IU/ml and HBsAg ＜1000 IU/ml as the long-term targets of control. In the antiviral era, two types of antiviral drugs should be applied individually to minimize the incidence and recurrence of HCC.
【Key words】：hepatitis B virus; carcinoma, hepatocellular; universal precautions; therapy